Economic Research Forum (ERF)

Caroline Krafft

Founding contributors

Caroline Krafft
Saint Catherine University

Caroline Krafft is an assistant professor of economics at St. Catherine University. She received her PhD from the Department of Applied Economics at the University of Minnesota. Her research examines issues in development economics, primarily labor, education, health, and inequality in the Middle East and North Africa. Current projects include work on refugees, labor market dynamics, life course transitions, human capital accumulation, and fertility.

Content by this Author

Moving to opportunity: internal migration and education in Egypt

Internal migration has the potential either to improve or to hinder educational opportunities. In Egypt, rates of internal migration are low and it is undertaken primarily by adults who have finished their education and are moving to work or marry. This column reports research evidence showing that the children of rural to urban migrants stay longer in school and complete more education. The improved economic situation of their migrant parents plays an important role in their persistence in school.

Supporting women’s livelihoods in Egypt: opportunities and challenges

Despite the rising educational attainment of women in Egypt, their employment has declined over time and many face multiple constraints on their engagement in the labour market. This column explores ways of increasing women’s assets and economic empowerment that may ultimately lead to Egypt being as equitable in employment attitudes and practices as it is in education.

Labour supply in Egypt: untapped potential

Labour force participation has decreased for both men and women in Egypt. This column reports the latest data, noting that the potential contributions of a large share of the country’s increasingly educated population are untapped. Creating a conducive business environment that can generate good jobs is critically important to engaging all of Egypt’s human potential.

The future of Egypt’s population: opportunities and challenges

Egypt’s potential labour supply depends on the growth and changing composition of its working-age population. This column reports the latest data on labour supply and fertility rates, concluding that the country has a window of opportunity with reduced demographic pressures to try to address longstanding structural challenges for the labour market.

The impact of hosting refugees on the labour market

What are the labour market effects of a massive influx of people on members of the host community? This column examines the experience of Jordan resulting from the conflict in neighbouring Syria. Evidence shows that Jordanians living in areas with high concentrations of Syrian refugees had no worse labour market outcomes than Jordanians with less exposure to the influx.

Syrian refugees in Jordan: educational enrolment and progress

School enrolment for Syrian refugees in Jordan has been disrupted due to conflict and displacement. This column reports that despite a policy of free basic and secondary education, there are substantial gaps in enrolment. While younger refugees face challenges entering school and progressing once enrolled, older refugees need support returning to education after disruptions in their schooling. Well-educated refugees will be better equipped to contribute to the economy and eventually rebuild their country.

Syrian refugees in Jordan: healthcare and food security

Ensuring the health and food security of the 1.3 million Syrians seeking refuge in Jordan is critical for protecting this vulnerable population now as well as securing their future. This column reports research showing that despite food assistance programmes, they face high rates of food insecurity. In addition, low rates of health insurance among refugees are likely to create barriers to healthcare, although refugees do ultimately access care when needed.

Syrian refugees: limited participation in Jordan’s labour force

Syrian refugees in Jordan have been able to work legally with permits since 2016, yet their labour force participation remains very low. This column discusses why relatively few work permits have been used, potentially because of perceived downsides of the current system. The low employment rates and the low take-up of work permits are worrying trends for the wellbeing of refugees.

Who are the Syrian refugees in Jordan?

The conflict in Syria has created millions of refugees, including almost 1.3 million Syrians living in Jordan. This column discusses the demographics of Syrian refugees in Jordan, who are predominantly young and living in host communities. Refugees face unique documentation challenges in accessing critical services, but recent reforms have improved access and should be expanded.

Promoting better jobs for young people in Egypt

A young person’s first job has a huge impact on the rest of their working life. Today, Egyptian youth face big challenges in securing that first position. This column explains why active labour market policies are unlikely to help with the initial transition into employment. Instead, policy-makers in Egypt should focus on improving the investment climate for small firms, and creating safe and accessible jobs for young women.

Better measures of the health of Egypt’s labour market

Policy discussions about the health of Egypt’s labour market focus almost exclusively on one indicator: the unemployment rate. This column argues that the unemployment rate is a poor indicator of the cyclical performance of the economy. What’s more, it focuses attention on the plight of a very specific group of people, who are not the most vulnerable to poor labour market conditions.

Housing policy and marriage: evidence from Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia

At a time when young people in MENA countries face an increasingly protracted and difficult transition to adulthood, how can housing policy help them to marry and form independent households? This column explains how reforms to the rental housing market in Egypt helped to reverse a trend towards later marriages.

Inequality in higher education: Egypt, Jordan and Tunisia

Attainment of higher education is strikingly unequal in Egypt and Tunisia, and a little less so in Jordan. This column reports research showing that in all three countries, family background is the primary driver of inequality. Particularly in Egypt and Tunisia, public spending on higher education is regressive, with the result that what purports to be a meritocratic and equitable system in reality perpetuates inequality.

Most read

Arab countries are caught in an inequality trap

Conventional wisdom, based mainly on surveyed household income distribution statistics, suggests that inequality is generally low in Arab countries. At the same time, little attention has been devoted to social inequalities, whether in terms of outcomes or opportunities. This column introduces a forthcoming report, which offers a different narrative: based on the largest research project on the subject to date and covering 12 Arab countries, the authors argue that the region is caught in an inequality trap.

How Egyptian households cope with shocks: new evidence

Managing risks and reducing vulnerability to economic, social, environmental and health shocks enhances the wellbeing of households and encourages investment in human capital. This column explores the nature of shocks experienced by Egyptian households as well as the coping mechanisms that they use. It also examines the relationship between such risks and job formality and health status.

Egypt’s labour market: facts and prospects

An ERF policy conference on the Egyptian labour market in late October 2019 focused on gender and economic vulnerability. This column summarises the key takeaways from the event.

An appeal for Sudan’s future

Sudan today is on a knife-edge: it can evolve toward peace and democracy – or spiral into instability and violence. As this Project Syndicate column argues, vital and timely international assistance can make the difference between success and failure for the new government.

Reinforcing the re-emergence of the “missing middle” in Egypt

The more rapid growth of employment in small and medium-sized businesses compared with both micro enterprises and large firms in the Egyptian private sector presages the re-emergence of the ‘missing middle’. This column explains why this is a positive phenomenon that needs to be promoted and reinforced.

Political settlement scenarios for Arab conflicts

Millions of refugees from the Arab conflicts want to return to their countries, rebuild their homes and get their lives back – but what kind of political settlements might support that prospect? This column explores types of political settlements, what happened in the past after conflicts in Algeria and Lebanon, and scenarios for future political settlement in Syria.

Repatriation: scenarios for conflict resolution and reconstruction

What are the prospects for conflict resolution in Syria and other war-torn Arab countries, for reconstruction of their broken economies and societies, and for repatriation of the many refugees that have fled for their lives? This column discusses the notion of inclusive political settlements as a precondition for safe refugee repatriation and reconstruction plans for devastated communities.

Tackling multidimensional poverty in MENA

What does most recent multidimensional poverty assessment of the Middle East and North Africa reveal about health, education, living standards and social security in the region. This column outlines the evidence and potential policy responses.

Rethinking inequality in Arab countries: the latest research evidence

In an effort to explain and find policy responses to the Arab Spring, there has been considerable focus on inequality. This column summarises the findings of a major research project on the issue.

Distrust fuels protests in the Middle East and North Africa

Street protests are enveloping many countries in the Middle East and North Africa – and the fundamental cause is a growing sense of individual uncertainty and distrust of governments. This column argues that governments in the region must restore confidence in their abilities to lead change. More open markets can help to unleash the full potential of individuals in MENA countries – but to do so requires open governments.