Economic Research Forum (ERF)

Business Cycles in Kuwait: A New Chronology

Policy-makers, business leaders and forecasters can all benefit from access to data on historical economic and financial cycles as well ...


Development gains from Arab-African trade integration

Despite their proximity, trade and investment flows between the Arab countries and sub-Saharan Africa are very low. This column reports ...


The energy sector reforms of Saudi Arabia’s Vision 2030

Energy constitutes a major building block of Saudi Arabia’s economic reform agenda described in the government’s Vision 2030. This column ...


Can Trump’s sanctions break Iran?

Iran and the United States seem to have reversed roles with the Trump administration's decision to withdraw from the 2015 ...


Escaping the middle-income trap: lessons from East Asia’s experience

Many countries find themselves in the ‘middle-income trap’, facing a slowdown of economic growth because of weak innovation. This column ...


Euro-Med trade agreements, macroeconomic stability and income convergence

Economic relations between the European Union and their partner countries in the Southern Mediterranean are being reshaped by the New ...


Inequality in the Middle East

Survey estimates suggest that inequality in the Middle East is not particularly high despite considerable political conflict. This VoxEU column ...


How the Middle East oil pricing system emerged in the 1940s

The discovery of giant oil fields in the Persian Gulf in the 1940s was a turning point in the history ...