How was the balance between Egypt’s formal and informal economies affected by the political turmoil that accompanied the Arab Spring? This column reports research showing that the number of jobs with no contract or social security coverage has increased in recent decades, but particularly since the uprising in 2011. Educated young people have been hurt more than the less educated.
Far from causing ‘brain drain’ in the developing world, temporary migration can lead to a ‘brain gain’ for the sending countries. This column reports research on Egypt showing that migrants acquire significant human capital while they are overseas, which increases their probability of upward occupational mobility when they return home. This provides a potential source of economic growth for their country of origin.
Migration can be responsible for the spread of new social norms about gender roles. This column explores the impact of temporary migration from Jordan to more conservative and highly unequal neighbouring countries. The results indicate that women in households with a return migrant become more conservative themselves.
Job creation in the formal private sector is vital for inclusive economic growth in many MENA countries, but in some cases, it is being hampered by over-protective labour regulations. This column emphasises the importance of a balanced approach between flexibility in the labour market and the security of workers’ earnings.